The uiautomator testing framework lets you test your user interface (UI) efficiently by creating automated functional UI testcases that can be run against your app on one or more devices.
Robotium is an Android test automation framework that has full support for native and hybrid applications. Robotium makes it easy to write powerful and robust automatic black-box UI tests for Android applications.
Robolectric is a unit test framework that de-fangs the Android SDK jar so you can test-drive the development of your Android app. Tests run inside the JVM on your workstation in seconds.