Bindables

Additional

Language
Kotlin
Version
1.0.2 (Feb 14, 2021)
Created
Feb 14, 2021
Updated
Feb 17, 2021
Owner
Jaewoong Eum (skydoves)
Contributors
Jaewoong Eum (skydoves)
Seanghay (seanghay)
2
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Bindables

🧬 Android DataBinding kit for notifying data changes from Model layers to UI layers. This library provides base classes for DataBinding (BindingActivity, BindingFragment, BindingViewModel), and support ways in which notifying data changes without observable fields and LiveData.

UseCase

You can reference the good use cases of this library in the below repositories.

  • Pokedex - 🗡️ Android Pokedex using Hilt, Motion, Coroutines, Flow, Jetpack (Room, ViewModel, LiveData) based on MVVM architecture.
  • DisneyMotions - 🦁 A Disney app using transformation motions based on MVVM (ViewModel, Coroutines, LiveData, Room, Repository, Koin) architecture.
  • MarvelHeroes - ❤️ A sample Marvel heroes application based on MVVM (ViewModel, Coroutines, LiveData, Room, Repository, Koin) architecture.
  • TheMovies2 - 🎬 A demo project using The Movie DB based on Kotlin MVVM architecture and material design & animations.

Download

Gradle

Add below codes to your root build.gradle file (not your module build.gradle file).

allprojects {
    repositories {
        mavenCentral()
    }
}

And add a dependency code to your module's build.gradle file.

dependencies {
    implementation "com.github.skydoves:bindables:1.0.2"
}

SNAPSHOT

Snapshots of the current development version of Bindables are available, which track the latest versions.

repositories {
   maven { url "https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots/" }
}

Setup DataBinding

If you already use DataBinding in your project, you can skip this step. Add below on your build.gradle and make sure to use DataBinding in your project.

plugins {
    ...
    id 'kotlin-kapt'
}

android {
  ...
  buildFeatures {
      dataBinding true
  }
}

Initialize

We should bind BR class which generated by the DataBinding process on compile-time to BindingManager. This is recommended to bind on Application class.

BindingManager.bind(BR::class)

BindingActivity

BindingActivity is a base class for Activities that wish to bind content layout with DataBindingUtil. It provides a binding property that extends ViewDataBinding from abstract information. The binding property will be initialized lazily but ensures to be initialized before being called super.onCreate in Activities. So we don't need to inflate layouts, setContentView, and initialize a binding property manually.

class MainActivity : BindingActivity<ActivityMainBinding>(R.layout.activity_main) {

  override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)

   binding.vm = viewModel // we can access a `binding` propety.

  // Base classes provide `binding` scope that has a receiver of the binding property.
  // So we don't need to use `with (binding) ...` block anymore.
   binding {
      lifecycleOwner = this@MainActivity
      adapter = PokemonAdapter()
      vm = viewModel
    }
  }
}

BindingFragment

The concept of the BindingFragment is not much different from the BindingActivity. It ensures the binding property to be initialized in onCreateView.

class HomeFragment : BindingFragment<FragmentHomeBinding>(R.layout.fragment_home) {

  private val viewModel: MainViewModel by viewModels()

  override fun onCreateView(
    inflater: LayoutInflater,
    container: ViewGroup?,
    savedInstanceState: Bundle?
  ): View {
    super.onCreateView(inflater, container, savedInstanceState) // we should call `super.onCreateView`.
    return binding {
      adapter = PosterAdapter()
      vm = viewModel
    }.root
  }
}

BindingViewModel

BindingViewModel provides a way in which UI can be notified of changes by the Model layers.

bindingProperty

bindingProperty notifies a specific has changed and it can be observed in UI layers. The getter for the property that changes should be marked with @get:Bindable.

class MainViewModel : BindingViewModel() {

  @get:Bindable
  var isLoading: Boolean by bindingProperty(false)
    private set // we can prevent access to the setter from outsides.

  @get:Bindable
  var toastMessage: String? by bindingProperty(null) // two-way binding.

  fun fetchFromNetwork() {
    isLoading = true

    // ... //
  }
}

In our XML layout, the changes of properties value will be notified to DataBinding automatically whenever we change the value.

<ProgressBar
    android:id="@+id/progress"
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    app:gone="@{!vm.loading}"
    app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
    app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
    app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
    app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent" />

notifyPropertyChanged

we can customize setters of general properties for notifying data changes to UI layers using @get:Bindable annotation and notifyPropertyChanged() in the BindingViewModel.

@get:Bindable
var message: String? = null
  set(value) {
    field = value
    // .. do something.. //
    notifyPropertyChanged(::message) // notify data changes to UI layers. (DataBinding)
  }

Two-way binding

We can implement two-way binding properties using the bindingProperty. Here is a representative example of the two-way binding using TextView and EditText.

class MainViewModel : BindingViewModel() {
  // This is a two-way binding property because we don't set the setter as privately.
  @get:Bindable
  var editText: String? by bindingProperty(null)
}

Here is an XML layout. The text will be changed whenever the viewModel.editText is changed.

<androidx.appcompat.widget.AppCompatTextView
  android:id="@+id/textView"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:text="@{viewModel.editText}" />

<EditText
  android:id="@+id/editText"
  android:layout_width="wrap_content"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content" />

In your Activity or Fragment, we can set the viewModel.editText value whenever the EditText's input is changed. We can implement this another way using inversebindingadapter.

binding.editText.addTextChangedListener {
  vm.editText = it.toString()
}

Binding functions

We can impement bindable functions using @Bindable annotation and notifyPropertyChanged() in the BindingViewModel. And the @Bindable annotated method's name must start with get.

class MainViewModel : BindingViewModel() {
  @Bindable
  fun getFetchedString(): String {
    return usecase.getFetchedData()
  }

  fun fetchDataAndNotifyChaged() {
    usecase.fetchDataFromNetowrk()
    notifyPropertyChanged(::getFetchedString)
  }
}

Whenever we call notifyPropertyChanged(::getFetchedData), getFetchedString() will be called and the UI layer will get the updated data.

android:text="@{viewModel.fetchedData}"

Binding Flow

We can create a binding property from Flow using @get:Bindable and asBindingProperty. UI layers will get newly collected data from the Flow or StateFlow on the viewModelScope. And the property by the Flow must be read-only (val), because its value can be changed only by observing the changes of the Flow.

class MainViewModel : BindingViewModel() {

  private val stateFlow = MutableStateFlow(listOf<Poster>())

  @get:Bindable
  val data: List<Poster> by stateFlow.asBindingProperty()

  @get:Bindable
  var isLoading: Boolean by bindingProperty(false)
    private set

  init {
    viewModelScope.launch {
      stateFlow.emit(getFetchedDataFromNetwork())

      // .. //
    }
  }
}

Binding SavedStateHandle

We can create a binding property from SavedStateHandle in the BindingViewModel using using @get:Bindable and asBindingProperty(key: String). UI layers will get newly saved data from the SavedStateHandle and we can set the value into the SavedStateHandle when we just set a value to the property.

@HiltViewModel
class MainViewModel @Inject constructor(
  private val savedStateHandle: SavedStateHandle
) : BindingViewModel() {

  @get:Bindable
  var savedPage: Int? by savedStateHandle.asBindingProperty("PAGE")

  // .. //

BindingRecyclerViewAdapter

We can create binding properties in the RecyclerView.Adapter using the BindingRecyclerViewAdapter. In the below example, the isEmpty property is observable in the XML layout. And we can notify value changes to DataBinding using notifyPropertyChanged.

class PosterAdapter : BindingRecyclerViewAdapter<PosterAdapter.PosterViewHolder>() {

  private val items = mutableListOf<Poster>()

  @get:Bindable
  val isEmpty: Boolean
    get() = items.isEmpty()

  fun addPosterList(list: List<Poster>) {
    items.clear()
    items.addAll(list)
    notifyDataSetChanged()
    notifyPropertyChanged(::isEmpty)
  }
}

In the below example, we can make the placeholder being gone when the adapter's item list is empty or loading data.

<androidx.appcompat.widget.AppCompatTextView
    android:id="@+id/placeholder"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    android:text="@string/empty"
    app:gone="@{!adapter.empty || viewModel.loading}" />

BindingModel

We can use binding properties in our own classes via extending the BindingModel.

class PosterUseCase : BindingModel() {

  @get:Bindable
  var message: String? by bindingProperty(null)
    private set

  init {
    message = getMessageFromNetwork()
  }
}

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License

Copyright 2021 skydoves (Jaewoong Eum)

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.